Broad Spectrum Hemp Extract References
1. Morales P, Hurst DP et al. Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture. Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. 2017;103: pp. 103–131.
2. Pretsch CM, Freyberg J et al. Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomized placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 Feb 6 [Epub ahead of print]
3. Blasco-Benito S, Seijo-Vila M et al. Appraising the “entourage effect”: Antitumor action of a pure cannabinoid versus a botanical drug preparation in preclinical models of breast cancer Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;157: pp. 285-293
4. Gertsch J, Leonti M et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(26):pp. 9099–9104
5. Day J. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past, Journal of Experimental Botany. 2013. (64); 18, pp. 5805–5816,
6. Naranjo P, Schultes R et al. (Eds) Urgent need for the study of medicinal plants. Ethnobotany: Evolution of a Discipline, Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR (1995), pp. 362-368
7. Mechoulam, R. (ed.) in Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents 1–19 (CRC, Boca Raton, 1986).
8. Elsohly MA, Slade D. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sci 2005;78: pp. 539– 548.
9. Mechoulam R, Peters M et al. Cannabidiol—recent advances. Chem Biodivers 2007;4: pp. 1678–1692
10. Premoli M, Aria F et al. Cannabidiol, recent advances and new insights for neuropsychiatric disorders treatment. Life Sciences 224 2019; pp. 120–127
11. Maccarrone M, Bab I, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015 May; 36(5): pp. 277–296.
12. Russo EB. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;37(7): pp. 594-605
13. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ et al. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature. 1990; 346: pp. 561-564
14. Munro S, Thomas KL et al. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature. 1993; 365: pp. 61-65
15. Járai Z, Wagner J. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 23; 96(24): pp. 14136–14141
16. Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S163–S171.
17. Ryberg E, et al. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol 2007;152:1092–1101.
18. Glass M, Dragunow M et al. Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: A detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience. 1997 77(2), pp. 299–318.
19. Brown SM, Wager-Miller J et al. Cloning and molecular characterization of the rat CB2 cannabinoid receptor. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 2002; 1576(3), pp. 255–264
20. Grotenhermen F. Cannabinoids, Curr. Drug Targets – CNS Neurol. Disord. 2005; (4); pp. 507–530.
21. Devane WA, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science. 1992; 258: pp. 1946–1949
22. Vaughan CW, Christine MJ. Retrograde signaling by endocannabinoids. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(168) \: pp. 367-83
23. Kano M, Ohno-Shosaku T. Retrograde signaling at central synapses via endogenous cannabinoids.Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(3): pp. 234-5.
24. Fasinu PS, Phillips S et al. Current status and prospects for cannabidiol preparations as new therapeutic agents, Pharmacotherapy 2016; 36: pp. 781–796
25. Morales P, Reggio PH et al. An overview on medicinal chemistry of synthetic and natural derivatives of cannabidiol, Front. Pharmacol. 2017; (8) p 422
26. Russo EB, Burnett A et al. Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors. Neurochem. Res. 2005; 30, pp. 1037–1043
27. Esposito G, Scuderi C et al. Cannabidiol reduces Ab-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARg involvement. PLoS ONE 2011;6:e28668
28. Bakas T, Devenish S et al. The actions of cannabidiol and 2-arachidonyl glycerol on GABA-A receptors, in Proceedings of the 26th Annual Symposium on the Cannabinoids, International Cannabinoid Research Society, Bukovina, 2016; pp. 28
29. Pacher P, Kunos G. Modulating the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease–successes and failures. FEBS J. 2013 May;280(9):pp. 1918-43
30. McPartland JM, Guy GW et al. Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system: a systematic review of potential clinical interventions that upregulate the endocannabinoid system. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e89566
31. Di Marzo V, Maccarrone M. FAAH and anandamide: is 2-AG really the odd one out? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008; 29:229–233.
32. Melamede, R. 2015, February 24. Dr Robert Melamede PhD on the Endocannabinoid System. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pvaF1r0HL6Y&app=desktop Accessed April 28, 2019.
33. Juknat A, Pietr M, Kozela E. et al. Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Apr;165(8): pp. 2512-28.
34. Russo EB, Guy GW (2006). A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses 66: pp. 234–246.
35. Witkamp R, Meijerink J. The endocannabinoid system: an emerging key player in inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Mar;17(2)
36. Lau BK, Cota D, Cristino L, et al. Endocannabinoid modulation of homeostatic and non-homeostatic feeding circuits. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jun 1. pii: S0028-3908(17)30258-7
37. Malfait AM, Gallily R et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97(17):pp. 9561–6.
38. Hampson AJ, Grimaldi M et al. Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;899: pp. 274-82.
39. Pucci M, Rapino C et al. Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids.Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;170(3): pp. 581-91
40. Schmidt E (2010). Production of essential oils. In: Baser KHC, Buchbauer G (eds). Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, pp. 83–120.
41. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7): pp. 1344–1364
42. Study by Quicksilver Scientific. 10 Person intra-absorption comparison of liposomal and non-liposomal cannabidiol.
43. El-Alfy AT, Ivey K. Antidepressant-like effect of19 -tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2010; 95, pp. 434–442.
44. Ashton CH, Moore PB et al. Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011 Oct;124(4): pp. 250-61
45. Babson KA, Sottile J et al. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017 Apr;19(4): pp. 23
46. Kleiner D, Ditrói K Orv Hetil. The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome. Orv Hetil. 2012 Apr 1;153(13):pp. 499-504
47. Fernandez-Ruiz J, Sagredo O et al. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid? Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2013; 75, pp. 323–333.
48. Velayudhan L, Van Diepen E et al. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative disorders: a selective review, Curr. Pharmaceut. Des. 2014; 20; pp. 2218–2230
49. Baul HS, Manikandan C et al. Cannabinoid receptor as a potential therapeutic target for Parkinson’s Disease. Brain Research Bulletin 2019; 146; pp. 244–252
50. Himadri Shekhaar Baul, Ceera Manikandan, Dwaipayan Sen
51. Devinsky O, Marsh E et al. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurol. 2015; 15, pp. 270–278.
52. Baker D, Pryce G et al. The endocannabinoid system and multiple sclerosis, Curr. Pharmaceut. Des. 2008; 14; pp. 2326–2336.
53. Massi P, Solinas M et al. Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2013; 75, pp. 303–312.
54. Korem N, Zer-Aviv TM et al. Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat anxiety-related disorders. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 May 1;27(3): pp. 193-202.
55. Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM et al. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct; 12(4): pp. 825–836.
56. Neya LJ, Matthews A et al. Cannabinoid interventions for PTSD: Where to next? Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 2019; 93; pp. 124–140
57. Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain, Therapeut. Clin. Risk Manag. 2008; 4; pp. 245–259.
58. S. Peat, Using cannabinoids in pain and palliative care, Int. J. Palliat. Nurs. 2010; 16; pp. 481–485.
59. Gajofatto A. Refractory trigeminal neuralgia responsive to nabiximols in a patient with multiple sclerosis, Mult Scler Relat Disord 2016; 8; pp. 64–65.
60. Sabatino M, Fabiana P et al. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Feb; 162(3): pp. 584–596.
61. Burstein S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorgan. Med. Chem. 2015; 23, pp. 1377–1385.
62. Maresz EJ, Carrier ED et al. Modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli, J. Neurochem. 2005; 95; pp. 437–445.
63. Kachan V, David P. Cannabinoids and autoimmune diseases: A systematic review. Autoimmunity Reviews 2016; 15; pp. 513–528
64. Ribeiro A, Almeida V et al. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2015; 37, pp. 35–41.
65. McAllister SD, Murase R. Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Breast Cancer Res. 2011; Treat. 129, pp. 37–47.
66. Russo EB. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Apr;29(2): pp. 192-200.
67. Grinspoon, L. A novel approach to the symptomatic treatment of autism. O’Shaughnessy’s, 2010; Summer Issue.
68. Karhson DS, Krasinska KM et al. Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder. Mol Autism. 2018 Mar 12;9: pp. 18.
69. Borrelli F, Fasolino I. et al. Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2013; 85, pp. 1306–1316.
70. Di Carlo G, Izzo AA et al. Cannabinoids for gastrointestinal diseases: potential therapeutic applications, Expet Opin. Invest. Drugs 2003; 12 pp. 39–49.
71. Merritt JC, Crawford PC et al. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma, Ophthalmology 87 1980; pp. 222–228.
72. El-Remessy AB, Al-Shabrawey M. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes, Am. J. Pathol. 2006; 168; pp. 235–244.
73. Durst R, Lotan C et al. The potential for clinical use of cannabinoids in treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2011; 29; pp. 17–22.
74. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010; 56; pp. 2115–2125.