Phillipis JK, et al. Pain management and the opioid epidemic: Balancing societal and individual benefits and risks of prescription opioid use. Washington DC, National Academies Press, 2017.
Sondergaard KB, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide case–time–control study. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2017; 3(2): 100-107.
CNT Collaborative Group. Vascular and upper gastrointestinal effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials. The Lancet. 2013; 382(9894): 769-779.
Utzeri E, Usai P. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(22): 3954-3963.
Nezvalova-Henriksen K, et al. Association of prenatal ibuprofen exposure with birth weight and gestational age: A population-based sibling study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12): e0166971.
De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V. An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: from the early to the latest concepts. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 23(1): 1-15.
Barrie N, Manolios N. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. Eur J Rheumatol. 2017; 4(3): 210-218.
Ward SJ, et al. cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Br J Pharmacol. 2014; 171(3): 636-645.
Lichtman AH, et al. Results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nabiximols oromucosal spray as an adjunctive therapy in advanced cancer patients with chronic uncontrolled pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018; 55(2): 179-188.
O’Brien, M, McDougall JJ. Cannabis and joints: scientific evidence for the alleviation of osteoarthritis pain by cannabinoids. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2018; 40: 104-109.
Urits I, et al. An update of current Cannabis-based pharmaceuticals in pain medicine. Pain Ther. 2019; 8(1): 41-51.
Philpott HT, et al. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017; 158(12): 2442-2451.
Schley M, et al. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006; 22(7): 1269-1276.
Russo E, Guy GW. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses. 2006; 66(2): 234-246.
Bruni N, et al. Cannabinoid delivery systems for pain and inflammation treatment. Molecules. 2018; 23(10): 2478.
Majeed S. The state of the curcumin market. Natural Products Insider. 2015.
Dou Y, et al. curcumin attenuates collagen-induced inflammatory response through the “gut-brain axis.” J Neuroinflamm. 2018; 15:6.
Toden S, et al. Essential turmeric oils enhance anti-inflammatory efficacy of curcumin in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 814.
Funk JL, et al. Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58(2): 842-849.
Nelson KM, et al. The essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin. J Med Chem. 2017; 60(5): 1620-1637.
Sun M, et al. Advances in nanotechnology-based delivery systems for curcumin. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012; 7(7): 1085-1100.
Yue GGL, et al. The role of turmerones on curcumin transportation and p-glycoprotein activities in intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Med Food. 2012; 15(3): 242-252.
Antony B, et al. A pilot cross-over study to evaluate human oral bioavailability of BCM-95CG (Biocurcumax), a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008; 70(4): 445-449.
Umar S, et al. Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis. Phytomedicine. 2014; 21(6): 847-856.
Sengupta K, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin®for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008; 10: R85.
Majeed M, et al. A pilot, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel Boswellia serrata extract in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Phytother Res. 2019; 33(5): 1457-1468.
Gupta I, et al. Effects of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in patients with chronic colitis. Planta Med. 2001; 67(5): 391-395.
Haroyan A, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18: 7.
Meins J, et al. Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a micellar solubilized delivery form of Boswellia extract. NFS Journal. 2018; 11: 12-16.
Fidyt K, et al. β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties. Cancer Med. 2016; 5(10): 3007-3017.
Mhaske DB, et al. Role of piperine as an effective bioenhancer in drug absorption. Pharm Anal Acta. 2018; 9- 7.
Dzierzanowski T. Prospects for the use of cannabinoids in oncology and palliative care practice: A review of the evidence. Cancers (Basel). 2019; 11(2): 129.
Rudroff T, Sosnoff J. Cannabidiol to improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2018; 9: 183.
Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 72(5): 735-744.
De Vita MJ, et al. Association of cannabinoid administration with experimental pain in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018; 75(11): 1118-1127.
Perkins K, et al. Efficacy of Curcuma for treatment of osteoarthritis. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017; 22(1): 156-165.
Bulboaca AB, et al. Preemptive analgesic and antioxidative effect of curcumin for experimental migraine. Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 4754701.
Daily JW, et al. Efficacy of turmeric extracts and curcumin for alleviating the symptoms of joint arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Med Food. 2016; 19(8): 717-729.
Mazieiro R, et al. Is curcumin a possibility to treat inflammatory bowel diseases? J Med Food. 2018; 21(11) [ahead of print].
Delecroix B, et al. Curcumin and piperine supplementation and recovery following exercise induced muscle damage: A randomized controlled trial. J Sports Sci Med. 2017; 16(1): 147-153.
Jager R, et al. Eight weeks of a high dose of curcumin supplementation may attenuate performance decrements following muscle-damaging exercise. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7): pii: E1692.
Alberti TB, et al. (−)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid, suppresses motor paralysis and neuroinflammation in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(4): 691.
Segat GC, et al. Antiallodynic effect of β-caryophyllene on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2017; 125: 207-219.
Bang JS, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(2): R49.
Umar S, et al. piperine ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and histological outcome in collagen induced arthritis. Cell Immunol. 2013; 284(1-2): 51-59.